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Kerela Travel Guide

Kerala Malayalam is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. To its east and northeast, Kerala borders Tamil Nadu and Karnataka; to its west and south lie the Indian Ocean islands of Lakshadweep and the Maldives, respectively. Kerala envelops Mahé, a coastal exclave of Pondicherry. Kerala is one of four states that compose the linguistic-cultural region known as South India.

First settled in the 10th century BCE by speakers of Proto-South Dravidian, Kerala was influenced by the Mauryan Empire. Later, the Cheran kingdom and feudal Namboothiri Brahminical city-states became major powers in the region. Early contact with overseas lands culminated in struggles between colonial and native powers. Finally, the States Reorganisation Act of November 1, 1956 elevated Kerala to statehood. Social reforms enacted in the late 19th century by Cochin and Travancore were expanded upon by post-Independence governments, making Kerala among the Third World's longest-lived, healthiest, most gender-equitable, and most literate regions. However, Kerala's suicide and unemployment rates rank among India's highest.

The etymology of Kerala is widely disputed, and is a matter of conjecture. It may derive from Sanskrit keralam, means 'the land added on', with reference to its mythical and geographical origins. Another prevailing theory states that it is an imperfect Malayalam portmanteau that fuses kera ('coconut palm tree') and alam ('land' or 'location' or 'abode of' ). Natives of Kerala—Keralites—thus refer to their land as Keralam. The most reaiable theory is that the name is originated from the phrase chera alam (Land of the Chera). Kerala's tourism industry, among others, also use the phrase God's own country.

Capital: Kavaratti
Population :838,619 (12th)
Area :38,863 km² (21st)
Principal Languages: Malayalam

History:
During Neolithic times, humans largely avoided Kerala's malarial rainforests and wetlands; thus, the first evidence of habitation—potsherds and dolmens—dates to the 10th century BC.[2] These were produced by speakers of the Tamil language from north-western India, suggesting that ancient Kerala and Tamil Nadu (part of Tamilakam) once shared a common language, ethnicity, and culture. By the early 14th century, Kerala had become a linguistically distinct region. The first major recorded kingdom, the Chera, ruled Kerala from Vanchi. Allied with the Pallavas, they warred against the Chola and Pandya kingdoms. A Keralite identity—distinct from the Tamils and associated with the second Chera empire and the development of Malayalam—evolved during the 8th–14th centuries. In written records, Kerala was first mentioned in the Sanskrit epic Aitareya Aranyaka. Later, figures such as Katyayana, Patanjali, Pliny the Elder[3], and the unknown author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea displayed familiarity with Kerala.
Muniyaras (Keralite dolmens or megalithic tombs) in Marayoor, erected by Neolithic tribesmen.The Chera kings' dependence on trade meant that merchants from West Asia established coastal posts and settlements in Kerala.[4] Many—especially Jews and Christians—also escaped persecution, establishing the Nasrani Mappila[5] and Muslim Mappila communities. According to several scholars, the Jews first arrived in Kerala in 573 BC.[6][7] The works of scholars and Eastern Christian writings states that Thomas the Apostle visited Muziris in Kerala in 52 CE to proselytize amongst Kerala's Jewish settlements.[8] However, the first verifiable migration of Jewish-Nasrani families to Kerala is of the arrival of Knai Thoma in 345 CE. Muslim merchants settled in Kerala by the 8th century CE. After Vasco Da Gama's arrival in 1498, the Portuguese sought to control the lucrative pepper trade by subduing Keralite communities and commerce.Conflicts between the cities of Kozhikode (Calicut) and Kochi (Cochin) allowed the Dutch to oust the Portuguese. In turn, the Dutch were ousted at the 1741 Battle of Colachel by Marthanda Varma of Travancore (Thiruvathaamkoor). Meanwhile, Mysore’s Hyder Ali conquered northern Kerala, capturing Kozhikode in 1766. In the late 18th century, Tipu Sultan—Ali’s son and successor—launched campaigns against the expanding British East India Company; these resulted in two of the four Anglo-Mysore Wars. He ultimately ceded Malabar District and South Kanara to the Company in the 1790s. The Company then forged tributary alliances with Kochi (1791) and Travancore (1795). Meanwhile, Malabar and South Kanara became part of the Madras Presidency.
Memorial of Veera Pazhassi Raja (the "Lion of Kerala") in Mananthavady, Wayanad. Pazhassi Raja launched a guerilla war against the East India Company in the late 18th century.Kerala saw comparatively little defiance of the British Raj—nevertheless, several rebellions occurred, including the 1946 Punnapra-Vayalar revolt.[9] Many actions, spurred by such leaders as Sree Narayana Guru and Chattampi Swamikal, instead protested such conditions as untouchability; notable was the 1924 Vaikom Satyagraham. In 1936, Chitra Thirunal Bala Rama Varma of Travancore issued the Temple Entry Proclamation that opened Hindu temples to all castes; Cochin and Malabar soon did likewise. In 1921, sectarian violence erupted in Kerala, with conflicts between militant Muslims on one hand and Hindus and the British Raj government on the other. The conflict became known as the Moplah Rebellion.After India's independence in 1947, Travancore and Cochin were merged to form Travancore-Cochin on July 1, 1949. On January 1, 1950 (Republic Day), Travancore-Cochin was recognised as a state. Meanwhile, the Madras Presidency became Madras State in 1947. Finally, the Government of India's November 1, 1956 States Reorganisation Act inaugurated a new state—Kerala—incorporating Malabar District, Travancore-Cochin (excluding 4 southern Taluks which was merged with Tamil Nadu), and the taluk of Kasargod, South Kanara.[10] A new Legislative Assembly was also created, for which elections were held in 1957. These resulted in a communist-led government[10]—one of the world's earliest[11]—headed by E.M.S. Namboodiripad. Subsequent social reforms favoured tenants and labourers.[12][13] This facilitated, among other things, improvements in living standards, education, and life expectancies.

Climate:
The diversity of the geographical features of the state has resulted in a corresponding diversity in climate. The High Ranges have a cool and bracing climate throughout the year, while the plains are hot and humid.
The average level of annual rainfall is quite high when compared to other Indian states, almost three times higher than in Karnataka while twice than in Tamilnadu. The state basically enjoys 4 types of climate such as Winter ,Summer ,South West Monsoon and North East Monsoon .

Culture:
Kerala's culture is a blend of Dravidian and Aryan influences, deriving from both a greater Tamil-heritage region known as Tamilakam and southern coastal Karnataka. Later, Kerala's culture was elaborated upon through centuries of contact with neighboring and overseas cultures.[89] Native performing arts include koodiyattom, kathakali – from katha ("story") and kali ("performance") – and its offshoot Kerala natanam, koothu (akin to stand-up comedy), mohiniaattam ("dance of the enchantress"), thullal, padayani, and theyyam.

Religion in Kerala
:
Kerala hailed, as God's own country, by many, deserves this accolade because of many features geographical and sociological. A long coastline in the west and mountains on the east forming clear natural boundaries. Religion has played a crucial role in Kerala's culture. There are mainly three religions in Kerala - Hinduism, Christianity and Islam. As far as the religion of Kerala is concerned, the origins could be traced to Hinduism. Then came in the Islamic faith and Christianity with its various sects. The other Indian religions like Buddhism; Jainism had some influence among the Hindus and was found scattered with their migration to Kerala.According to the 1991 census 57.38% of the population of Kerala are Hindus, 23.33 Muslims and 19.32 Christians. The earliest settlers of Kerala were the Proto-Australoids, the Mediterranean, Dravidians, and the Aryans in 321-297 BC.


Transports:
Kerala has 145,704 km of roads (4.2% of India's total). This translates into about 4.62 km of road per thousand population, compared to an all-India average of 2.59 km. Virtually all of Kerala's villages are connected by road. Traffic in Kerala has been growing at a rate of 10–11% every year, resulting in high traffic and pressure on the roads. Total road length in Kerala increased by 5% between. Kerala's road density is nearly four times the national average, reflecting the state's high population density. India's national highway network includes a Kerala-wide total of 1,524 km, which is 2.6% of the national total. There are eight designated national highways in the state. Upgrading and maintenance of 1,600 km of state highways and major district roads have been taken up by the Kerala State Transport Project (KSTP), which includes the GIS-based Road Information and Management Project (RIMS). Most of Kerala's west coast is accessible through two National Highways, NH 47, and NH 17. The state has major international airports in Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, and Kozhikode that link it with the rest of the nation and the world. Alappuzha has a excellent waterway network unique to its Backwater territory. The Indian Railways' Southern Railway line runs throughout the state, connecting all major towns and cities except the highland districts Idukki and Wayanad

 
Kerala Alappuzha Ernakulam Idukki Kannur Kasargod Kochi Kollam
Kottayam Kozhikode Malappuram Palakkad Pathanamithitta Periyar Wildlife Thekkady
Thiruvananthapuram Trichur Wayanad        
   
 
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